Location: Bai <<Home <<Village list

民族概况
白族人口约180万人,主要聚居在大理白族自治州
村寨介绍
白族村占地62.5亩。村内以飞檐斗拱,雕梁画栋的白族传统民居为主。“三坊一照壁”、“四合五天井”、“扎染坊”、“木雕屋”、“花园茶社”、“戏台”、“本主庙”及大理“崇圣寺三塔”等布局,使整座村寨院落鳞次栉比,宽敞整齐。一条以经营精美工业品的“大理街”贯通南北,沿街设有民俗馆和蝴蝶展馆。
民居建筑
住房坝区多为院落式土木或石木结构的瓦房。边远山区多为竹蔑笆房和垛木房。
宗教信仰
主要信仰佛教和本民族特有的本主神,也有信道教和原始宗教。本主有的是自然神,有的是南诏、大理国的王子,有的是为民除害的英雄人物。元明后内地禅宗传到大理,佛教寺院遍布各地,使洱海有“古妙香国”的称号。
礼仪习俗
白族热情好客,先客后主是白族待客的礼节。家中来了客人,以酒、茶相待。著名的三道茶是白族的待客礼。但白族人倒茶一般只倒半杯,倒酒则需满杯,他们认为酒满敬人,茶满欺人。受到白族人热情的款待,应说声“挪卫你(谢谢)”来表示你的谢意和感激之情。尊敬长辈是白族的传统美德,见到老人要主动打招呼、问候、让道、让座、端茶、递烟。家里的火塘是个神圣的地方,忌讳向火塘内吐口水,禁止从火塘上跨过。
语言
使用白语,属汉藏语系藏缅语族。绝大部分居民操本族语言,通用汉语文。
婚俗
当白族男子向姑娘求婚时,姑娘如同意,要向男方送粑粑;婚礼时新娘要下厨房制作“鱼羹”;婚后第一个中秋节新娘要做大面糕,并以此表现新娘的烹调技艺。婚礼时讲究先上茶点,后摆四四如意(即四碟、四盘、四盆、四碗)席。白族实行一夫一妻制,婚礼隆重、热烈。按传统风俗,举行婚礼这天,新郎必须骑高头大马去娶亲。新娘娶回后要拜客,由新郎、新娘对家庭中的长辈敬拜,然后请客吃饭。新郎、新娘要陪客人进餐,这时,客人们可向新人出难题,也可以让他们表演节目,婚礼被喝彩声和欢笑声笼罩着。最有特色的是在婚礼上燃起辣椒粉,于是在欢声笑语中许多人都打喷嚏、咳嗽,热闹无比。
服饰
男子头缠白色或蓝色的包头,身着白色对襟衣和黑领褂,下穿白色长裤,肩挂绣着美丽图案的挂包。妇女多穿白色上衣,外套黑色或紫色丝绒领褂,下着蓝色宽裤,腰系缀有绣花飘带的短围腰,足穿绣花的“百节鞋”,臂环扭丝银镯,指带珐琅银戒指,耳坠银饰上衣右衽佩着银质的“三须”、“五须”。已婚者挽髻,未婚者垂辫于后或盘辫于头,都缠以绣花、印花或彩色毛巾的包头。
文化
白族在艺术方面独树一帜,其建筑、医学、史学、文学、戏曲、绘画、雕刻、历法、水利名扬古今中外。大理崇圣寺三塔、《南诏中兴国史画卷》、张胜温《大理画卷》、剑川石窟石雕等闻名中外。
饮食
坝区以大米、小麦为主粮,副食主要是各种蔬菜和鱼、肉、禽、蛋;山区主食玉米、荞子、马铃薯等杂粮,喜好酸、冷、辣口味。白族待客热情周到,请客通常招待“八大碗”。白族传统“三道茶”堪称是民族茶道文化中的一绝,常用于接待尊贵的宾客。
歌舞
民间艺术“霸王鞭”、“草帽舞”、“大本曲”充满喜庆欢乐气氛;民俗节庆活动有热闹欢快的“三月街”、“绕三灵”、“迎新娘”等。
节日
传统大小节日有三月街、绕山林、火把节、石宝山歌会等70余个。
Three pagodas Temple
          The pagodas here are scaled to be one fourth of the Three Pagodas in Dali. Ranking among the key cultural relics under state protection, the Three Pagodas in Dali are a complex of Buddhist buildings at Chongsheng Temple. The pagodas were first built during the reign of Quanfengyou, King of Nanzhao Kingdom (824-859). Qianxun Pagoda, the major pagoda, was the first to be built. It is a square 69.13-meter-high brick pagoda of 16 compact stories with upturned eaves. The other two pagodas in the north and south were built shortly after Qianxun Pagoda. They average a height of 42.19 meters and are a pair of octagonal 10-story brick pagodas. Although Chongsheng Temple was destroyed in the Xiantong period (860-873), the three pagodas were kept intact. They have become a symbol of Dali and are among the oldest and most magnificent buildings in Yunnan.
Sanfangyizhaobi
          Bai-style houses are mostly courtyard houses, the major form of which is sanfangyizhaobi. Beside the front gate of the house stands a screen-like wall (zhaobi). Face-to-face with zhaobi are three rooms, which form the first or major fang (unit or section) of the house. The room in the middle is the living room of the house, the place for important family activities. The other two rooms are elders' bedrooms. One of the two rooms will be used as the bridal chamber if someone in the family gets married. The left and right sides of zhaobi are connected with two wings, which make the other two fangs of the house. Usually exquisitely decorated, zhaobi both serves as a screen and reflects sunlight. It is also believed to be capable of keeping out evils and taking in blessings. Zhaobi has become the signature of Bai-style houses.
Marriage custom
          The Bai intermarry with other races, and uxorolocal marriages are common. Farm work and festive occasions allow youngsters to meet each other and develop relations. Marriages of the Bai are generally based on free love, though ceremonially parents of the young couple will hire match-makers to settle on the engagement. Once this is done, the prospective bridegroom will send a gift of “chicken and wine” to the parents of the bride. The wedding ceremony usually lasts for three days. The first day is called “chaipeng”, when theatrical troupes will be hired to sing Bai operas in the house of the newly-wed. The second day is called “zhengri”, when the bride will bid farewell to her family (she is supposed to weep loudly when parting) and get on a sedan sent by her husband’s family. When she arrives at her new home, she is to be carried by her escorting brother (if she has one) on his back to her wedding room. The spectators on the way will shower on her fried rice and flowers or give her pinch. And she has to cross a “hot basin” before she goes into her new home. This is followed by a rite for worshipping heaven and earth and a feast entertaining all the guests. The feast continues into the next day but the attendants now will be mainly the relatives of both the bride and the bridegroom. The wedding ceremony having accomplished, the new couple will return to the home of the bride’s parents and stay there for seven days before they go back to their new home to make offerings to the Benzhu (guardian god) of their own village.
Scroll
          Also known as “Scroll of Buddha Images of Dali Kingdom Painted by Zhang Shengwen”, this paper-based scroll runs to 1635.5 millimeters in length and 30.4 millimeters in breadth. The original is now in the Forbidden City Museum in Taipei. The Scroll vividly shows the popularity of Buddhism in the Dali Kingdom, and is a treasure in China’s Buddhist art. The painting was accomplished by Zhang Shengwen, a court artist of the Dali Kingdom, in 1180, AD. The scroll exhibited here is a photocopy of the original.
Nanzhao map.
          This is a series of Buddhist paintings composed of several pictures which tell stories from Buddhist scriptures as well as from the history of Nanzhao Kingdom, including “Incarnation of Avalokitesvara”, and “Worshipping the Iron Post”. The pictures served to deify the rulers of the Nanzhao Kingdom. The authorship is unknown, but the present pictures are replicas of the original. They were kept in the palace of the Qing Dynasty for some time before they were plundered by the Allied Forces in the late Qing Dynasty. In 1932, they were spotted in New York by an American named Chopin, who took photos so that they were known to the world again.
Torch Festival
          The origin of the torch festival can be traced to the Han Dynasty, when it was called Xinhui Festival. For the Bai today, the festival falls on the 25th day of the 6th lunar month. When this happens, villagers will set up a tall pagoda-like tree of torches in the center of the village. When night falls, people come with torches in their hands to light up the tree of torches, marking the beginning of a carnival. Then a torch procession starts around the village and in the fields, with the purpose to expel evils and seek a bumper harvest.
The Raosanlin Festival
          The Raosanlin Festival of the Bai dates back to Tang Dynasty, when it started as an activity for paying pilgrimage to temples and worshiping ancestors. The Sanlin(three sacred places) refers to the Chongsheng Monastery, the Holy Place of Buddhism, and Shengyuan Temple, the Holy Place of Gods, and Jinkui Temple, the Holy Place of Immortals. The festival falls on the 23rd day to the 25th day of the 4th lunar month, when people of the region would gather at the three temples, singing and dancing throughout night. The festival also provides an opportunity for youngsters to date each other. Thus it is sometimes referred to as a Valentine of the Orient.
Planted yangko dance
          Planting of rice seedlings is one of the major farming activities of the Bai. When the planting season comes, the whole family will go to work in the fields, and friends and relatives will also come to lend a helping hand. While they work, they will sing songs to express their feelings for each other. The songs also embody their thoughts about harmony between man and nature.
Five Bridges Of Dali
          In 1992 when the Minorities Village theme park was established in Kunming, the Bai Village became one of the earliest to be open to visitors. The Bai of Dali were excited about the news, and some folk artists contributed some of the exhibits that are now on show in the village, including three mural paintings and the models of the Five Bridges of Dali, which are among the finest handicraft works that have been exhibited over the last decade.