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民族概况
傣族人口约107万人,主要分布在云南的德宏傣族景颇族自治州、西双版纳傣族自治州及澜沧江流域的河谷坝子区域。
村寨介绍
傣寨占地面积27亩,三面环水,绿树掩映。一幢幢“干栏式”傣家竹楼,通过蜿延的红砂石小径联向肃穆的缅寺。巍峨壮观的白塔,精巧玲珑的风雨桥,以及风雨亭、水井、钟亭等建筑充满着傣家的浓郁风情,是傣寨真实的民间景观再现
民居建筑
傣族的建筑受气候、海拔、地形、建筑材料等自然环境影响,主要有以西双版纳傣族民居为代表的优美灵巧的干栏式建筑,以元江、红河一线傣族民居为代表的厚重结实的平顶土掌房,以及典雅富丽的佛寺建筑。干栏式建筑称为“竹楼”,近似方形,以数十根大竹子支撑,悬空铺楼板;房顶用茅草排覆盖,既通风又透光,楼顶两面的坡度很大,呈“A”字形。分两层,楼上住人,楼下饲养牲畜,堆放杂物,也是舂米、织布的地方。
宗教信仰
傣族多信仰南传上座部佛教和原始宗教,少数信仰鬼、神、巫术。在西双版纳男孩到七八岁要过佛寺生活,识字念经,然后还俗回家,成为受尊重的人。妇女虽然不入寺为僧,但也都是虔诚的佛教信徒。
礼仪习俗
族把“不偷、不骗、不抢、不打、不骂、和睦相处、尊老爱幼、热情好客、互帮互爱、廉洁清白、诚实善良”等作为做人的道德标准,把“热爱劳动,热爱自然、保护生态”作为很重要的生命品质,以此来教育启发人们自觉维护和遵守。
语言
傣族有自己的语言文字。语言属汉藏语系壮傣语支。现通行的西双版纳和德宏两种傣文,系拼音文字,由印度南部巴利文演化而来。
婚俗
婚礼仪式是拴线(傣语“树欢”),意为“拴魂”,即把新郎新娘的魂拴在一起,把两颗心拴在一起。结婚那天,人们把新郎(傣语“黑迈”)送新娘(傣语“摆迈”)家里,举行拴线仪式。主婚人坐上首,亲友们靠近主婚人围桌而坐,新郎新娘男右女左地跪在主婚人的对面。仪式先由主婚人致贺词,新郎新娘从桌上揪起一坨糯米饭,在酒里蘸一蘸,点祭鸡、盐等物,每人连续点三次,点完后放在桌上。接着,主婚人从桌上拿起一根较长的白线,从左到右,绕过新郎新娘有肩,把线的两端搭在桌上,表示把两个人的“灵魂”拴在一起,让他们白头偕老,永不分离。然后,主婚人又拿起两根较短的白线,分别拴在新婚夫妇的手腕上。接着,在座的其他老人也纷纷拿起白线,分别拴在新郎新娘的手腕上,祝福他们婚后幸福。
服饰
傣族妇女一般喜欢穿窄袖短衣和统裙,上面穿一件白色或绯色内衣,外面是紧身短上衣,窄袖短衫紧紧地套着胳膊,前后衣襟刚好齐腰,紧紧裹住身子,再用一根银腰带系着短袖衫和统裙口,下着长至脚踝的统裙,腰身纤巧细小,下摆宽大。这种装束充分展示了女性的胸、腰、臀“三围”之美,加上所采用的布料经柔,色彩鲜艳明快,给人一种婀娜多姿、潇洒飘逸的感觉。傣族男子一般都穿无领对襟或大襟小袖衫,下穿长管裤,用白布、青布或绯布包头,有的戴呢礼帽,显得潇洒大方。无论男女,出门总喜欢在肩上挎一个用织绵做成的挎包(筒帕)。
饮食
傣族最具特色是竹筒饭。制作方法是将米装进新鲜的竹筒后加水,放在火上烧烤,吃起来清香可口。所有佐餐菜肴及小吃均以酸味为主,喜欢吃干酸菜和用昆虫为原料制作各种风味菜肴和小吃。普洱茶是云南西双版纳特产,现已成为中外驰名的名茶。西双版纳傣族自治州特产非常丰富,仅水果就有110多种。
歌舞
一年一度的“泼水节”期间,有活泼欢快的“象脚鼓舞”(“嘎光舞”)和婀娜多姿的“孔雀舞”。
节日
傣族的重大节日有泼水节、关门节和开门节。泼水节是傣族最富民族特色的节日,时间是傣历六月(公历4月中旬),举行3天,头两天送旧,最后一天迎新。这天人们要拜佛,姑娘们用漂着鲜花的清水为佛洗尘,然后彼此泼水嬉戏,相互祝愿,认为这样可以不生疾病,四季平安,鼓声、锣声、泼水声、欢呼声响成一片。期间还要举行赛龙船、放高升、放飞灯等传统娱乐活动和各种歌舞晚会。
Buddhist Temple
        The Dai people as a whole are TheravadaBuddhists. In Xishuangbanna, Dehong and Lincang prefectures where the Dai livein compact communities, Buddhist temples are found in nearly all villages. Onfestive occasions such as Aowasa (Gate-opening),Haowasa (Gate-closing) and Water-SplashingFestival, villagers throng into these temples for worshipping Buddha, burningjoss-sticks and giving offerings to Buddha as well as for performing suchritual activities as  sand-piling andBuddha-washing in the hope of seeking Buddha’s blessings for a year of bumperharvest and peace for the village.

         When a Dai boy growsto seven years of age, he must be made a novice in the temple, where he is tostay until 15 before he returns to the secular life. A Dai man without suchexperience is regarded as having no status in the community. The Dai traditionalso features a thread-tying ritual which is usually performed by a priest ofsome rank in the temple or by an elderly person of the community. The ritual ismeant to bring blessings to the person involved.
Village God
        The village god, or Diulaman in the Dai language, is the guardiangod of a village community. Different villages have different guardian gods, whoare often deified founders of village communities, or prestigious ancestors orlocal celebrities. The village god is often symbolized by a post erected at thecenter of the village or, in some rare cases, by a rock. Each year two majorceremonies are performed for worshipping the village god, one before theseedling transplanting time for seeking the god’s blessings for a bumperharvest and one in autumn as a thanksgiving. Some minor rites are alsoperformed when there are people moving into or out of the village.
Yunyan Pagoda

        The pagoda is a 1:1 replicaof the Yunyan Pagoda that is located at the Yunyan Hill of Yingjiang County, Dehong Prefecture.Also known as the Manmengding Pagoda, the pagoda is a cultural relic understate-level protection. It was first erected in the Republican years by a Tusi (local chief) of Zhanda of Yingjiangnamed Sihongsheng for cracking down river monsters and eradicating disastersbrought by war and plague as well as for seeking eternal peace. The pagoda is amultilayered brick and concrete structure that sits on a base that occupies anarea of 400 square kilometers. The pagoda consists of a 20-meter main tower and40 small ones. At the base there are five terraced platforms. On the firstterrace there are seven small pagodas on each side. And starting from thesecond layer, the pagoda becomes more and more shrunk in size, with one smallpagoda at the corner of each layer, until a square-shaped base is formed. Thereare engraved lotuses and giants on the body of the pagoda, with the pinnaclebeing gilded. The pagoda is a highly creative combination of the TheravadaBuddhist culture with the traditional Dai architecture.

Origins of the Dai People
          In ancient times, the Dai people belonged to the Yue people. In the Qin and Han dynasties, the ancestors of the Dai people, called "Dian Yue" and "Shan," established their political organization--the Shan State. In 1st century A.D., the leader of the Shan State was conferred the title of "Great Commandant of Han." During the Tang and Song dynasties, because of the conventions of tattooing and coloring their teeth, the ancestors of the Dai people were called "heichiman (black-teethed people)," "jinchiman (gold-teethed people)," "yinchiman (silver-teethed people)," "xiujiaoman (feet-tattooed people)," "xiumianman (face-tattooed people)," "baiyi (white costume)," etc. In the Ming and Qing dynasties, the Dais were called "baiyi," "fenyi" and so on. When Yunnan became a province in the Yuan Dynasty, Dehong and its neighboring areas were set up as Jinchi (golden teeth) Xuanfusi administrative region. Under Jinchi administration were six commands in charge of military and civil affairs. In Xishuangbanna, Cheli Command was set up. Ming Dynasty established a complete tusi system, according to which chieftains of the Dais were conferred the hereditary title of tusi.
Beliefs and Festivals of the Dai People
          The Dai people generally believe in Theravadin Buddhism, and some of them also believe in ghosts, deities and sorcery. As a rule, boys will live in temples for some time until they have become literate and can read scriptures. After they leave the temples, they will go back to secular life and become respectable people. Although they do not have to enter the temples as nuns for some time, women are also pious Buddhists. "Haowasa" and "Aowasa" (Day of Opening Doors and Day of Closing Doors) are two important religious festivals. The two festivals fall on Sept.15 and Dec.15 in the Dai calendar respectively. On both occasions donations are made to the temples for the blessing of Buddha.  The most important traditional festival of the Dais' is the Water-Sprinkling Festival, which is celebrated in June in the Dai calendar (April in the Gregorian calendar). The festival lasts for three days. The first two days are for ringing out the Old Year and the third day for ringing in the New Year. In early morning, after they bathe themselves and change clothes, people--men and women, old and young--will go to the temples to make donations and sprinkle water onto the statues of Buddha to "wash away the dust." Then they will sprinkle water at one another to expel disasters and bring blessings and peace for the coming year. In the afternoon, "diubao (pouch throwing)" will be held especially for young men and women. Boys and girls will cast their self-made pouches at each other as love tokens. Other events include flying gaosheng (a sort of bamboo rocket) and dragon boat racing.