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民族概况
摩梭人是纳西族的一个支系,人口约8万,多聚居在宁蒗县永宁乡的泸沽湖畔。
村寨介绍
四合院,由正房、经堂、花楼、门楼等构成,正房坐北朝南,通称“祖母房”,居住一家中最年长的女性,同时也是一大家人饮食、待客、议事的核心场所和与神灵接触沟通的地点。花房称“阿夏房”,是婚龄女子的住房,一人一间,供走婚用。经堂,供佛及举行佛事活动的场所。
民居建筑
房屋皆用圆木或方木垒墙,以木板覆顶,一般由四栋二层楼房经戒四合院,分正房、花楼、经堂、门楼。正房(摩梭语称“依咪”)是家庭集中饮食、议事、祭祀及老人儿童住宿场所,因而其结构较为复杂。屋后设夹壁,直通后院,分隔时里外两间,里间储存粮食和肉食,兼作老年人的起居室;外间存放农具杂物,人去世后,尸体停放于此,妇女也在此生育、“坐月子”。正房左侧为家庭主妇的居室兼储藏贵重物品;右侧设大灶,用来煮猪食、烤酒,并设置石磨、石破等。在正房的正中间屋内设有高灶台,两侧装有木板,可供人睡;灶台顶角有一神鑫叫"梭拖",上面放置神像、花瓶和供品。下方设火塘,经堂(摩梭语称“嘎拉日”)是另外一侧厢房,供本家僧侣念经修习。经堂神鑫上供奉菩萨造像,板壁上绘莲花、海螺、火焰等图像。案桌上供长年油灯和净水碗。门楼,也称草楼,以庭院大门相配套。
宗教信仰
信仰原始宗教“打巴教”,口诵经称“打巴经”。
礼仪习俗
摩梭孩子长到13岁时,家人依俗要为之举行成年礼,女孩叫“穿裙礼”,男孩称“穿裤礼”,在农历正月初一清晨举行。到时男孩站在正房左边柱下,女孩站在右边柱下,左脚踩着猪原肉,右脚踩着粮食口袋,象征今后吃用不尽。女孩由母亲为她脱去旧的麻布长衫,穿上美丽穿裙礼的金边衣、百榴裙,系上绣有花卉图案的腰带,为其盘缠发辫,配上项链、耳环、手锡等饰物。男孩则由舅舅为其脱去旧的长衫,穿上新的上衣和长裤,扎上腰带,佩腰刀。
语言
摩梭无文字
婚俗
“走婚”即走访婚(摩梭语“色色”),走婚的形式“男不娶女不嫁”,男女终身都住在自己的母系家庭里,是由男子走婚来维持男女双方性关系而实现种族延续的一种特殊形式,男方晚上到女方偶次晨归回自己家中,双方都不是对方家庭的成员,有走婚关系的男女被俗称为“阿肖”或“肖波”,意为有性关系的亲密情侣,走婚并非杂乱无章,更不是乱婚,群婚制,要遵循一定的原则:有亲戚血缘关系的严禁走婚;不能同时结交多个阿肖;男女双方有好感就可走婚;感情破裂标志走婚关系的结束,若女方有小孩走婚关系就稳定下来。核心是基于男女自愿,感情为基础。
服饰
摩梭人13岁以前,不论男女都穿长衫,少男剃光头,少女则留小辫、佩戴彩珠。到13岁举行成年礼后,便改变服饰。成年女子头上盘绕粗长假辫,戴交缠式布包头,双耳戴金银铜质耳环为饰,上衣多是大襟右衽短衣,腰间缠绕花纹艳丽的宽布带子,胸前配戴双须银链,下着筒状百槽长裙,色彩以素白为普遍,仅在裙身中间用红线彩饰两圈,走起路来长裙摇曳摆动,颇为美观大方。成年男子头戴宽边呢毡帽,上穿金边大襟短衣,系红花腰带,配腰刀。富有者外罩一件厚呢及膝长衫,宽衣长袖,俗称“楚巴”。外配长刀,下穿宽脚长裤、长统皮靴,走起路来精神抖擞,潇洒利落。
文化
母亲之神,是摩梭人崇拜的诸神中最崇高、最伟大的神。摩梭人不仅崇拜女神,崇拜女石祖,崇拜女祖先,而且在家庭中以母为尊,以女为贵。泸沽湖的许多摩梭人家庭是以女性为中心的母系大家庭。
饮食
主粮是稻谷、玉米,以燕麦做粑粑,奶酪、酥油茶为佐食,“酥里玛”酒是摩梭人必备的饮料,是待客的佳品。
歌舞
姑娘们载歌载舞,献酥油茶,唱“玛达咪”即对山歌,跳土风舞,尽展民俗与风情。
节日
摩梭人传统的节日有春节、端午节、转山转海节等。
Courtyard House
          A branch of the Naxi people, the Mosuo people mostly live on cold forested mesas. The dwellings of the Mosuo people living by Lake Lugu are stilted courtyard houses built with pine wood. They are called mulengfang or log houses. Since the Mosuo people have preserved some social forms of matriarchal tribes, the spatial arrangement of their houses is usually decided by the structure of the big matriarchal family. A courtyard house usually consists of the middle room (Grandmother's Room), the scripture hall, the hua room (A'xia or Lovers’ Room), and the gate tower.
Pig-Trough-Shaped Boat
          The Mosuo people by Lake Lugu ferry, fish and gather seaweeds on the lake in a boat made out of a hollowed log. The lake often presents a poetical scene of small boats gliding in ripples and men singing in boats. Because the log boats look very much like the troughs for feeding pigs, they earn the name of pig-trough-shaped boats.
Flower Room of Axia
          In the Muosuo language, Axia means marriageable girl. So Axia’s flower room is where the girl lives and meets her lover. In the matrilineal society of the Muosuo, it is a common practice for women to have lovers without getting married. The Axia meets her lover at night, but when the day breaks, her lover returns to his own home to work in his own fields. In the same way, the Axia’s brothers (if she has any) will spend the night in their lovers’ home, but comes back to do all the field work. If there are any children born out of such relationship, they are to be cared for by the Axia.
Girl’s Room
          Girl’s Room is for little girls under 13 to stay in. When a girl grows to 13 years of age, she will move into the Grandma’s Room on the New Year’s Day( lunar calendar), where she will have an inaugural ceremony performed by her grandma and her maternal uncle. The ceremony involves a set of procedures like walking on pork and bags of grains; an act which suggests in a symbolic way that the girl is coming of age and is able to create wealth for the family. She will also start wearing dresses for adults, signifying that she is to be treated as an adult ever since.
Men’s Room
          Young men are called Azhu in the Muosuo language, middle-aged men, Ajiu(maternal uncle). An elderly man is called Laojiu(old maternal uncle). When a man comes to his middle age, he is supposed to assist his sisters in handling family affairs, including giving offerings to matrilineal ancestors, farming, herding animals and social activities. A Ajiu can have connections with children born out of his relations with his Axia, but they in principle belong to a different matrilineal family.
Grandma’s Room
          Grandma is the head of the family. Thus her room becomes the center of family activities. The room is adjacent to the kitchen, as well as to the birth-and -death room. It is in the Grandma’s Room that eating, guest-entertaining, meeting, child-delivery, dying and inaugural ceremonies take place. The birth-and-death room to the north of it is where children are born and where the dead is placed before burial. This arrangement shows the Muosuo idea of death as “returning to where one comes”.