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民族概况
回族是“回回民族”的简称,人口有64万人。在区域分布上,全省各县(市、区)几乎都有回族居住。
村寨介绍
民回族村落主要由民居楼、清真寺及街区等建筑群组成,并有园林园艺景致点缀其间,较完整地表现了云南回民建筑的布局风格与构建特征。
民居建筑
民回族村落主要由民居楼、清真寺及街区等建筑群组成,并有园林园艺景致点缀其间,较完整地表现了云南回民建筑的布局风格与构建特征。
宗教信仰
信仰伊斯兰教,由阿訇主持宗教活动,经典主要是《古兰经》,信徒称之为“穆斯林”。回族严格遵守伊斯兰教的基本信仰,遵奉《古兰经》、圣训,履行五大功课。
礼仪习俗
生活习俗固守回族传统,遵循教规,有自己独特的风俗习惯,不吃动物的血液和自死动物以及凶猛禽兽的肉,尤其禁食猪肉、狗肉、马肉、驴骡肉,穆斯林甚至避讳谈“猪”字,把它称为“黑牲口”。忌讳别人在自己家里吸烟、喝酒。
语言
回族的通用语为华语,第二语言为阿拉伯语。
婚俗
回族的婚姻必须遵循伊斯兰教的规定,视结婚为天命和圣行。婚姻须双方同意,在自愿的原则下,经家长和媒人施以聘礼,合乎教规手续,才能举行婚礼。婚前要由男方下聘订亲,并择婚礼日期。订新叫吃粮茶,结婚要请阿訇赞圣证婚,“赞圣”就是赞美安拉促成了这一对青年的美满婚姻,并由阿訇向新郎、新娘讲授伊斯兰教常识,要求男女双方遵守“依玛尼”(信德),背诵清真言,问他们各自的“经名”(宗教名字),新郎是否已送新娘“迈赫尔”(礼物),因为礼物是夫妻恩爱的象征。最后由阿訇正式含“尼柯哈”是婚礼必行之礼,有了证婚词,才能说明婚姻得以宗教的正式承认。其后还要举行扒果活动。待客人走后,夫妻共享,表示夫妻恩爱,同甘共苦,白头谐老,也是阿訇对新婚夫妇的良好祝愿。
服饰
回族服饰的主要标志在头部。男子们都喜爱戴用白色制作的无檐圆帽,俗称“小白帽”或“礼拜帽”,有的人还在圆帽上刺上精美的图案。回族妇女一般都戴披肩盖头。服装方面,回族老汉爱穿白色衬衫,外套黑坎肩(“马夹”)。回族老年妇女冬季戴黑色或褐色头巾,夏季则戴白纱巾,并有扎裤褪的习惯。青年妇女冬季戴红、绿色或兰色头巾,夏季戴红、绿、黄等色的薄纱巾。山区回族妇女爱穿锈花鞋,并有扎耳孔戴耳环的习惯。
文化
“錾花四系铜扁壶”、“阿拉伯文桥耳带座黄铜炉”、“阿拉伯文景泰蓝瓶”等传世文物见证了回族日常生活;泥洼喔、排萧、口弦在演绎着这个民族多才多艺的才情。
饮食
主食与藏民一样,吃青稞、豌豆,三餐离不开糌粑和酥油茶。在肉食方面禁忌颇多,一切禁忌中首推禁猪,在兽类方面还有狗、狼、虎、驴、猫等;在禽类方面有鹰、鹞等凶禽。民间特色食品有酿皮、拉面、大卤面、肉炒面、豆腐脑、牛头杂碎、臊子面等。
歌舞
在歌舞艺术上回族民间广为流传的有:一是民间“花儿”,大都以歌颂爱情为主要内容,舞蹈较为欢快奔放;二是“宴席曲”,多是男子对舞,是一种边歌边舞的形式,动作粗犷、剽悍,潇洒大方;三是“口弦舞”(“坐舞”),音乐细腻多变,清脆悦耳,;四是《念舞》(“拜舞”),动作朴实,舒展大方。
节日
在回族中有三大节日:开斋节、古尔邦节、圣纪节。这三个节日既是回族的民族节日,也是全世界穆斯林的宗教节日。除此之外,还有小的节日和纪念日,如法图麦节、登霄节、阿舒拉节等。这些节日和纪念日都是以希吉来历( 伊斯兰教历)计算的。节日里,人人穿上洁净的衣服,家家炸好香甜的“油香”、“馓子”,男人们洗净全身,到清真寺集体礼拜。
Mosque
          A mosque is also known as a "Libaisi" in Chinese or "Masjid" in Arabic, meaning "a place of worshipping Allah." Usually built in Hui-inhabited areas, a mosque is typically surrounded by ordinary Hui-style houses. A place for the Muslim Hui people to hold prayers and religious activities, a mosque is also in charge of spreading Islam and training religious professionals. Representative of Hui architecture, mosques fall into two general types: mosques with a circuit of walls and corridors and mosques with domes. Both types of mosques are aesthetically characterized by their stately, holy and tranquil aura. A mosque consists of the prayer hall, the sermon hall, the mi'dhana, the study chambers and the ablution chamber. The prayer hall is the centerpiece of a mosque. Since Allah has no concrete image in Islam, mosques house no statutes of His.
The three Festival
            Fast-Breaking Festival, or Eid-al-fitr.

          Islam defines the 9th month of Islamic calendar as the fasting month during which Moslems are supposed not to eat or drink between the break of day and sunset. In this way they are made to experience hunger and thirst. The fasting will last until the 1st day of the 10th month, when a grand ceremony is held to celebrate the accomplishment of the fasting. This is the Fast-Breaking Festival. When it takes place, Moslems will gather in the early morning in mosques for performing rites and giving donations to the poor. Then they will visit the cemetery to mourn for their deceased relatives. They will also prepare a lot of food like doughnuts, buns and slaughter cows and lambs for celebration of the occasion.

          Eid-e-Qurban

          the word in Arabic means sacrifice or making sacrificial offerings. Thus the festival is also called “animal slaughtering festival” or “animal sacrificing festival”. It falls on the 10th day of the 12th month in Islamic calendar. It is one of the grandest of Moslem festivals.

           Mawlud-un Nabi: this festival is celebrated for commemorating the birth and death anniversaries of the Holy Prophet Mohammad, who was born in 571 AD, and died in 632, but on the same day of the same month. On this day, Moslems will gather in mosques listening to recitations of stories about the Holy Prophet as well as Quran.

          Sayid Edjel Samsudin, The First Governor of Yunnan
            For a long time in history, Yunnan remained an independent kingdom: it was the Kingdom of Dian in the Han Dynasty, Kingdom of Nanzhao in the Tang Dynasty, and Kingdom of Dali in the Song Dynasty. It was only in the early Yuan Dynasty that it became a province of China, and Sayid Edjel Samsudin was appointed the first governor of this province.

           Sayid Edjel Samsudin was born in Bohhara of what is now Uzbeckstan. He joined Ghangis Khan’s army and took part in the latter’s west-bound expeditions. In the year 1274 he was appointed the Governor of Yunnan Province, and died on the job in 1279. He was buried on the north bank of the Songhuaba Reservoir. In his office as governor of Yunnan, he contributed greatly to the development of Yunnan’s economy by building dams and other irrigation works, and by encouraging commerce and cultural activities, and was well loved by the people of Yunnan.

           Zheng He, the great Hui navigator from Kunming

           In the Ming Dynasty, Zheng He, a courtesan of the Ming Emperor, led a huge fleet to western seas. In his seven expeditions, he established extensive contact with the countries he sailed to and has since been remembered as one of the world’s greatest navigators. But few people know that Zheng He was a native of Kunming, a Moslem, and possibly a descendant of Sayid Edjel Samsudin, according to some scholars.

           Zheng He (1371—1433), was born in Jinning of Kunming. He became a eunuch in the imperial court when he was still a teenager. His diligence and intelligence won for him imperial favor so that he eventually accomplished his great exploits as the admiral of the Ming’s great fleet.

           In October, 1411, Zheng He returned home to sweep the tomb of his ancestors upon “imperial order”. He stayed for one and months, and left an inscription on a stele which he erected with his brother. The inscription reads:“(his father Ma Haji)was a native Moslem of Kunyang prefecture of Yunnan Province…he had two sons born to him. The elder one was named Wenming, the younger one He…He was talented and ambitious even when he was a small boy. He later served the Emperor, who bestowed onto him the surname Zheng, and put him in charge of the internal affairs of the Palace.”

           Water House

           The water house is a toilet that Moslems use to clean themselves before they go to the mosque. In the five prerequisites of a Moslem, namely, meeting, congregation, fasting, recitation and paying pilgrimages to holy places, attending congregation in mosques is the most important. Before a Moslem goes to the mosque, he must clean himself in the water house, a practice which is called minor purification. Only when he gets his nose, mouth, face, hands and feet well cleaned can he step into the mosque. Islam requires its followers to be pure and clean both in mind and in body. So the water house plays an important role in the life of Moslems.