Location: Jingpo <<Home <<Village list

民族概况
景颇族人口约12.4万,主要聚居在云南德宏傣族景颇族自治州。云南景颇族包括4个主要支系:景颇、载瓦、勒期和浪俄。
村寨介绍
景颇寨占地15亩,有宽敞大方的各式民居建筑和精美华丽的”山官房”。广场中央竖立着“目脑纵歌示栋”,图案和雕塑象征着景颇族人民团结向前的意愿和骁勇刚毅的性格。
民居建筑
建筑形式集中表现了景颇族“干栏式”、“倒T型”等结构特征和布局形制,主要以竹、木为结构,茅草为屋顶的竹楼。一般为两层,下层主要堆放杂物和饲养牲畜,上层住人。屋内设有两个火塘,一个火塘是主人煮饭取暖的,另一个是祭祀或酿制米酒使用的。
宗教信仰
主要信仰万物有灵的原始宗教,认为自然界中的万物的鬼灵都能对人起作用,给人以祸福。一般对鬼魂既崇敬又畏惧,供奉的鬼有天鬼、地鬼、家鬼三类。天上以太阳鬼为最大;地上以地鬼为最大;家鬼以木代鬼为最大。凡遇插种、收割、婚丧、械斗等均请巫师宰牲祭鬼,最大的祭典“目脑”。 现也信仰基督教。
礼仪习俗
景颇族素以刻苦耐劳、热情好客、骁勇威猛的民族性格著称。他们有句家喻户晓的成语:“要像狮子一样勇猛。”景颇族喝酒十分注重礼节,熟人相遇互相敬酒,不是接过来就喝,而是先倒回对方的酒筒里一点再喝。大家共饮一杯酒时,每个人喝一口后都用手揩一下自己喝过的地方,再转给别人,如有老人在场,先让老人喝。
语言
景颇语言属汉藏语系藏缅语族,有景颇和载瓦两种方言。
婚俗
青年正式结婚前无不经过“干脱总”(载瓦语),即汉语所称“串姑娘”,指男女青年的交游活动,而对未婚者则是选择佳偶的一种恋爱方式。到了婚礼之日,新郎带上彩礼,由已婚男女青年各一名陪同迎亲。他们带上用熟糯饭揉成筒形的饭筒十多支,用芭蕉叶包好的菜包若干个,内包熟肉、菜蔬和传统必备的“冲冲菜”。到了新娘家,交过彩礼,切开饭筒,按人头每人分送一团饭和一个菜包。饭罢,女方由亲属将预备好的两套真假礼物抬出。先是把用芭蕉树做成的“刀”、“枪”等生产工具一件件交给受礼人,受礼人应完好无损地把“刀”、“枪”等挂在自己的肩上,若不能完好无损地接过来背挂在身,就将受罚。
服饰
景颇族男子喜欢穿白色或黑色对襟圆领上衣,包头布上缀有花边图案和彩色小绒珠,外出时常佩带腰刀和筒帕。妇女穿黑色对襟,下着黑、红色织成的统裙,腿上带裹腿。盛装时的妇女上衣前后及肩上都缀有许多银泡泡、银片,颈上挂七个银项圈或一串银链子或银铃,耳朵上戴比手指还长的银耳筒,手上戴一对或两对粗大刻花的银手镯。妇女戴银首饰越多表示越能干,越富有。有的妇女还爱好用藤篾编成藤圈,涂有红漆、黑漆,围在腰部,并认为藤圈越多越美。
文化
景颇族的口头文学发达,尤其是集诗、歌、舞于一体的创世史诗《勒包斋娃》深受本民族群众的喜爱。
饮食
景颇族主食大米,喜食干饭和竹筒饭。“舂菜”是用鹿子肉干巴、牛肉干巴或鼠肉干巴等,配以鱼腥菜等各种野菜、辣椒、豆豉、盐等,在竹、木或石制的盐臼中舂制而成,是景颇族特有的风味食品。男女老少均喜欢嚼烟草、芦子、槟榔和饮酒,熟人相见则从筒帕里拿出竹筒倒一杯酒相敬。典型食品主要有竹筒烤鱼、撒皮、舂鳝鱼、砂锅炖竹鼠。
歌舞
乐器有象脚鼓、铓锣、钹、三比(管乐器)和三弦等。男女老幼都喜欢参加集体舞蹈。舞蹈主要分为欢庆性、祭祀性和娱乐性3种。
节日
目脑纵歌节是景颇族最隆重的传统节日,目脑是景颇语,纵歌是载瓦语,意为“大伙跳舞”,这是景颇族规模最大、最隆重的节日庆祝活动形式之一,每年农历正月十五日举行,一般进行4天。每逢节期景颇人民穿着盛装,围绕“目脑纵歌示栋”,两位德高望重的老人身着龙袍,头戴插有孔雀、野鸡羽毛和野猪牙齿的目脑帽,带领队伍绕场一周,向目脑柱前后左右礼拜,表示朝拜祖先和祈求平安与风调雨顺之意。包括多种舞蹈形式,排列成阵,舞步有序,节奏鲜明。目脑纵歌,原是敬祭鬼神的原始宗教活动,现成为盛大传统节日。
Munaoshidong
          Composed of four totemic posts, Munaoshidong is a monument of the Jingpo for worshipping the Sun God. The two posts in the middle have on them drawings of the Sun and are supposed to be yang or masculine, while the two outer posts, which have on them drawings of the Moon, are yin or feminine. The right of the “lunar post” has lines which stand for the connection of the terrestrial world of man to the celestial world of gods. Two swords hang between the two “solar posts”, signifying the bravery and hardworking spirit of the Jingpo race. The four posts link each other in such a way as to form a huge “S”, which symbolizes the steps of the ritual dance invented by Nenggongkangjia, the legendary ancestor of the Jingpo. It also represents the zigzag route of migration of the Jingpo from the north to the south.
Shanguan Mansion
          This palace-like building is a replica of the Shanguan ( Local Chief) mansion of older times. Shanguans were powerful rulers of the Jingpo, and their dwelling houses naturally were the most impressive in a Jingpo community. The central column of the house is as thick as a man can embrace. This central column is often taken as a symbol of wealth: the thicker the column, the wealthier the family. The round artifacts that are hung on the walls of the landing are meant to resemble female breasts. People would caress them when they come home as a way of showing gratitude to motherhood and praying for fertility. The first upstairs room on the left is the Room of Youth which is used as the wedding room for the newly-wed, and sometimes also as a guest room. On the right there are rooms that function as the family shrine, children’s room and the Room of Elders respectively. As a Jingpo tradition, the youngest son is heir to family property. Other children have to move out when they get married, leaving the youngest to take care of the old as well as inheriting the family property.
Jingpo-style Living Room
          Fire pits are installed in the living rooms of all Jingpo families. The fire pits in the living rooms and kitchens are afire throughout the year. If the fire dies out, ominous ghosts are supposed to have entered the house. In that event, the unfortunate family has to ask Dongsha or a sorcerer to drive away the ghosts. Sometimes, the family has to move to a new place if things are thought to be extremely bad. Around the big fire pit in the living room are seats for family members and guests. The seat facing the door is for an elder of high reputation or a distinguished person. On its right side are seats for guests. The mistress of the house must sit with her back to the door. At the left end of the living room stands the "Ancestor-Worshipping Rack," which is used specially for worshipping ancestors and family ghosts. The door on the right will open only for sending off the ghosts and dancing the traditional dance Munaozongge. 
Beliefs of Jingpo People
          The Jingpo people mainly believe in animism. They believe that all natural things have souls and become spirits after death. The spirits will all haunt people, bringing them either disasters or blessings. The Jingpos are generally full of reverence and awe for spirits. When they sow in spring, harvest in autumn and store grains in winter, they will offer sacrifices to the spirits to pray for a good harvest and peace. In the event of a wedding, funeral, fight or illness, sacrifices will also be made. 
Munaozongge
          The grandest traditional festival of the Jingpo people is Munaozongge. A combination of many dance forms, Munaozongge is a mass song and dance event featuring large formations, orderly movements and characteristic rhythms. The festival falls on Jan 15 in the lunar calendar and usually lasts for 4 days. During the festival, the Jingpo people, dressed in their best, flock to the Munaozongge square and gathers around "munaoshidong", diagram boards erected in the center of the dancing ground to show the routes of the dancing formations. All participants dance heartily to the beats of the drums. Munaozongge, once a religious ceremony of worshipping spirits, has become a grand traditional festival and a modern carnival.