Location: Miao <<Home <<Village list

民族概况
苗族共104万余人,几乎全省都有分布,主要在广南、金平、屏边、马关4县。
村寨介绍
苗族村选取山地为营造环境,颇具代表性,提炼了苗族建筑的精华。吊角楼展示苗族服饰及手工制作工艺,民居楼则反映了生活起居的民间风范。
民居建筑
以典型的板屋系“吊角楼”等民居为构建主体,与傣族的吊脚楼有所区别。在苗家,这种吊脚楼也称“单坡吊脚楼”。吊脚楼一般分两层或三层,最上层低矮,只放粮食不住人,第二层是卧房,楼下底层堆放杂物或圈养牲口。有冬暧夏凉的特点,给人舒适恬静之感,经过桐油漆刷,整幢房屋既美观又能防虫,还能经受长年累月的风吹日晒。
宗教信仰
苗族的主要信仰有自然崇拜、图腾崇拜、祖先崇拜等原始宗教形式,传统迷信鬼神、盛行巫术。也有信仰基督教、天主教。
礼仪习俗
走廊上的木凳被称作“每人靠”,意思是每个人都能坐一坐,歇一歇。苗家门口挂着的牛角是用于驱邪的吉祥物,也是苗家用来敬酒的工具。在苗家众多的迎宾礼仪中,最隆重、最具风格的莫过于敬牛角酒。传说到苗家做客时,只要摸摸牛角就会给你带来好运,同时还得踩踩堂屋中间的木板,这块木板称“平安桥”,能让人平平安安,万事如意。苗家人非常好客,来了客人要杀鸡宰鸭。吃年饭是苗家人最神圣的时刻,全家必须团聚,此时特别忌讳外人来串门,认为在新的一年里全家都不得安宁。
语言
苗族有自己的语言,属汉藏语系苗瑶语族苗语支。现今大部分人通用汉文
婚俗
在节日和农闲时本寨姑娘与外寨小伙子对歌,相约谈唱。在集体对歌中,各人都在寻找自己的意中人,一旦寻到心上人,便双双来到僻静的地方,小声对唱情歌,以歌来询问或者向对方倾吐初衷。经过几次游方后,男女双方若有情意,便互赠礼品信物。按苗族风俗,男女相爱以后,须请一个媒人向女方家长求亲。媒人到家后,与姑娘父母议定身价,请女方的姑舅表亲吃“平伙猪”,就完成了订婚手续。等到小伙子家送了礼金,便可择日完婚志喜。在青年男女婚恋过程中必不可少的食品是糯米饭,并且把画有鸳鸯的糯米粑做为信物互相馈赠;举行婚礼时,新娘新郎要喝交杯酒,主婚人还要请新郎、新娘吃画有龙凤和奉娃娃图案的糯米粑。
服饰
盛装的服饰常常有数公斤重,素有“花衣银装赛天仙”的美称。喜戴银饰是苗族姑娘的天性,她们挽发髻于头顶,戴上制做精美的银花冠,花冠前方插有银翘翅,大都打制着二龙戏珠图案。银冠下沿,圈挂银花带,下垂一排小银花坠,脖子上戴的银项圈多以银片打制花和小银环连套而成,前胸戴银锁和银压领,胸前、背后戴的是银披风,下垂许多小银铃。耳环、手镯都是银制品。裙子叫“百褶裙”,从纺织布到漂染缝制到最后绘图绣花,都是姑娘们自己独立完成,再加上亲手刺绣的花腰带,花胸兜,真是异彩纷呈,美不胜收。男子一般穿对襟衣,袖子长而小,裤筒短而大,头缠布帕成斜十字形,大如斗笠。
文化
苗族有古历体系,属阴阳历,以太阳历为主。苗族的挑花、刺绣、织锦、蜡染、首饰制作等工艺美术,瑰丽多彩,在国际上享有盛名。
饮食
苗族人以大米杂粮为主食,最喜食糯米,油炸食品以油炸粑粑最为常见。喜吃狗肉,有“苗族的狗,彝族的酒”之说。以辣椒为主要调味品,酸汤家家必备。几乎家家都有腌制食品的坛子,统称酸坛。苗族酿酒历史悠久,从制曲、发酵、蒸馏、勾兑、窖藏都有一套完整的工艺。日常饮料以油茶最为普遍。典型食品主要有血灌汤、辣椒骨、苗乡龟凤汤、绵菜粑、虫茶、万花茶、捣鱼、酸汤鱼等。苗族也极喜欢饮酒,酒类主要有烤酒、甜酒、泡酒,其中以烤酒最为普遍,家家都能自己酿造。
歌舞
苗族是个能歌善舞的民族,山歌和芦笙舞都很受群众喜爱。芦笙舞又称“跳歌”、“打跳”、“踩芦笙”,是苗族群众自娱和表演相结合的民间舞蹈。每逢喜庆节日,苗家人身着盛装欢聚在芦笙场上,吹起动人的芦笙,边奏边舞,尽情狂欢。芦笙舞欢快,热烈,舞姿富有禀性,小伙子们粗犷炽热,豪放稳健,姑娘们体态优美,含蓄抒情。
节日
苗族传统节庆分为农事活动节庆、物质交流节庆男女社交、恋爱择偶节庆、祭祀性节庆、纪念性庆贺性节庆。每月都有一个以上的节庆日。一年一度的“花山节”是苗族的传统佳节,也是青年男女寻找知音、中老年人互相祝福的佳节。“祭鼓节”是苗族民间最大的祭祀活动,届时要杀一头牯子牛,祭视先人,并邀亲朋共聚一堂。
Church
          Christians believe in Jesus Christ as the Savior, and God as Creator and Lord of the world. Christianity is divided into three main denominations, namely, Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church and Protestant Church (or Christian Church)on the basis of their adherence to the Old Testament or the New Testament as the Scripture. The church is where followers perform mass or other congregational activities.

          It has been over a century since Catholic Church and Protestantism were spread to minority areas of Yunnan by missionaries, having produced a sizable number of followers among such groups as the Miao, the Yi, the Nu, the Lisu and the Lahu. This church in the Miao Village is a reflection of the reality.
Flower-Pole Square
          The Flower Festival of the Miao in southern Yunnan is usually observed between the first day and the 15th day of the first lunar month. The festival features such activities as singing and dancing to the accompaniment of reed pipes. There is also the unique performance of climbing a flower-festooned pole in reverse manner. In northeast Yunnan, the festival is often celebrated in early summer when all kinds of flowers bloom. The festive activities also include singing love songs and dancing to the accompaniment of reed pipes or gourd pipes. What is most fascinating is that the players demonstrate their virtuoso skills to the audience while they play.

          On this square, performances of songs and dances and other shows are staged at regular intervals. Visitors are welcome to come and watch.
The Miao Village
          According to the Miao’s “Old Songs” and historical literature, the origin of the Miao dates back over 5,000 years. They allegedly stemmed from the Jiuli (nine black tribes) tribes who were headed by Chiyou. The Jiuli tribes were defeated in the Battle of Zhulu by Huangdi or the Yellow Emperor, and their descendants later grew into what were known in history as the Sanmiao Tribes in the periods when emperors Yao, Shun and Yi ruled. The Sanmiao tribes never stopped their struggles against the other tribes. In the Shang, and Zhou Dynasties, the Sanmiao tribes were known as Jinchu or Nanman together with other tribes that lived along the Yangtse River.
Migrating Race
          In ancient times tribal wars were frequent. Even up to the medieval and pre-modern times, regional wars between tribes were so common that the Miao were forced to make long-distance migrations from east to west first and then from north to south. And wherever they stayed, they would stay only for a period of 3-5 years before they moved to other places. In such a way they penetrated most of Yunnan and some of them even went to as far as Southeast Asia. Such long-time migrations are seldom seen with other groups. It is recorded that the Miao started to come to Yunnan in the Tang Dynasty, but it was not until the Ming and Qing Dynasties that they came to settle in the province in large numbers.
Flower Festival of the Miao
          The Flower Festival of the Miao is a kind of valentine of the race when youngsters courted each other and the elders exchanged greetings. The exact date of the festival varies from place to place as the Miao communities scatter throughout the province. In southern Yunnan, the festival is celebrated in the first lunar month; whereas in northeast and central Yunnan, the festival is celebrated on the fifth day of the fifth month. When the festival comes, youngsters from far and near will come to gather at the Flower Hill wearing their holiday best. The “flower-pole master” or president of the ceremony will start by greeting the participants with toasts of wine, which is followed by the blaring of cymbals and drums as well as firecrackers and even reports of guns. Then the participants start to dance to the accompaniment of reed pipes. The frolicking will last until the next day.