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民族概况
蒙古族在云南有2.8万人,主要居住在玉溪市通海县兴蒙蒙古族乡。
村寨介绍
蒙古族村主要由云南通海兴蒙蒙古族乡代表性的合院系“一颗印”式的建筑、蒙古包及跑马场等组合而成,既表现了大草原游牧民族的祖风特征,又展示了云南蒙古族独特的建筑风格。
民居建筑
“蒙古包”是满族对蒙古族牧民住房的称呼。“包”满语是“家”、“屋”的意思。古时候称蒙古包为“穹庐”、“毡帐”或“毡房”等,最大优点就是拆装容易,搬迁简便,架设时将“哈纳”拉开便成圆形的围墙,拆卸时将哈纳折叠合回体积便缩小,又能当牛、马车的车板,看起来外形虽小,但包内使用面积却很大,且室内空气流通,采光条件好,冬暖夏凉,非常适合于经常转场放牧民居住和使用。
宗教信仰
蒙古族信奉多神,所谓万物有灵万物有神。家内堂屋楼上供奉“天地君亲师”牌位和祖先牌位,厨房供奉灶王爷,每个族姓有宗词。早期信仰萨满教,元代以后普遍信仰喇嘛教。
礼仪习俗
见面要互致问候,即便是陌生人也要问好,款待行路人是蒙古族的传统美德,但到蒙古族人家里做客必须敬重主人。进入蒙古包后,要盘腿围着炉灶坐在地毡上,炉西面是主人的居处。主人敬上的奶茶,客人通常是要喝的,不喝有失礼貌;主人请吃奶制品,客人不要拒绝。献哈达也是蒙古族的一项高贵礼节。献哈达时,献者躬身双手托着递给对方,受者亦应躬身双手接过或躬身让献者将哈达挂在脖子上,并表示谢意。
语言
蒙古族有自己的语言文字。蒙古语属阿尔泰语系蒙古语族,有内蒙古、卫拉特、巴尔虎布利亚特三种方言。
婚俗
蒙古族人一般在金秋八月开始谈婚论嫁。小伙子的父母委托信赖的说亲人,择个好日子带上儿子去看中的姑娘家说亲。姑娘及父母如果看上就收下献上的哈达和一盘饼食,这事就此定了下来。冬天是举办婚礼的好日子,经双方选定日子后,新郎家于傍晚时分到姑娘家接亲,民族风格浓厚、趣味横生的各种婚礼节目连续上演,一直到东方发白;接亲的队伍才跨上骏马,同送亲的队伍一道往新郎家进发。在离新郎家不远时送亲的队伍停下,迎亲的队伍到家后重新偕同新郎的父母亲人前来第二次迎接。在婆婆为儿媳妇掀开盖头后,新郎新娘得向父母、主婚人、亲戚们一一行磕头礼并敬酒。众人也会兴奋地唱起敬酒歌、跳起舞,欢乐在草原上荡漾。
服饰
首饰、长袍、腰带和靴子是蒙古族服饰的4个主要部分,妇女头上的装饰多用玛瑙、珍珠、金银制成。男子穿长袍和围腰,妇女衣袖上绣有花边图案,上衣高领,仍与蒙古族相似。妇女喜欢穿三件长短不一的衣服,第一件为贴身衣,袖长至腕,第二件外衣,袖长至肘,第三件为无领对襟坎肩,钉有直排闪光纽扣,格外醒目。
文化
蒙古族的民间文学主要有民间传说、民歌民谣、故事等,具有代表性的是民间长篇故事《阿扎拉的故事》。
饮食
蒙古族富有特色的食品如烤羊、手把羊肉、大炸羊、烤羊腿、奶豆腐、蒙古包子、蒙古馅饼等。民间还有稀奶油、奶皮子、菜羊肉卷、新苏饼、烘干大米饭。
歌舞
蒙古族善于歌舞,民歌分长短调两种。他们最喜欢的舞蹈叫“跳乐”,即众人围成一圈,一边舞蹈,一边击掌高歌。
节日
传统节日有白节、祭敖包、那达慕、打鬃节等。一年之中最大的节日是相当于汉族春节的年节,亦称“白月”,传说与奶食的洁白有关,含有祝福吉祥如意的意思。
Princess' Military Tent
          At the end of the Yuan Dynasty, the then rebel forces Red-Turban Army fought its way into Yunnan and occupied Kunming. Bazalawami, the hereditary king of Yunnan (titled King of Liang) fled to Chuxiong and asked Duan Gong, the magistrate of Dali, for assistance. Duan sent his troops to help King of Liang fight against the Red-Turban Army. After battles at Guanjiangtan and Qixingguan, the Red-Turban Army was defeated. King of Liang recovered Kunming. Later on, he married his daughter, Princess Ge, to Duan Gong.

          Soon after, taken in by his subordinates' slanders on Duan, King of Liang arranged for the princess to poison Duan. The princess refused to follow his order. King of Liang then plotted to have Duan murdered at Tongji Bridge by Dongsi (Eastern Temple) in Kunming. The princess was in such a great sorrow that she died in indignation. The tent is an imitation of the military tent of Princess Ge.
Yunnan Mongolians
          From the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongolian officers and soldiers, far away from their home prairies, gradually dismounted from horses to become garrison troops and then settled down as civilians in Tonghai and other places. Generations of their descendants made a living by woodcutting, fishing and farming. In the early days of their settlement, they availed themselves of the rich resources of fish and shrimps in Lake Qilu and made the lake a prosperous place of fishery. With stakes and stones, they built embankments and turned large areas of marshland around the lake into fertile farmland. The place gradually became an abundant land of fish and rice. The most praiseworthy custom of these Mongolians is "wood fetching." According to the old custom, if someone goes into the mountains to cut firewood, his family must meet him on his way back and carry the wood in his stead, at least for a leg of the journey. The custom best shows the Mongolians' care for each other and their harmonious family life.
Mani Mounds
          Mani mounds are worshipping places built with earth and sometimes stones by people of various nationalities who believe in Tibetan Buddhism. Mongolians also call them “aobao.” Mani mounds are equipped with incense burners and candlesticks. In times of worshipping, the mounds are planted with scripture flags and strings of white flag strips. The worshippers twirl the scripture wheels in their hands, chant scriptures, kneel down and pray, wishing to dispel disasters and expressing their piety or the mourning for the dead.

          Mani mounds can be found outside both Tibetan Village and Mosuo courtyard house.
Mongolians in Yunnan
          The Mongolians living in Yunnan were descendants of Mongolian troops that came to Yunnan in the early Yuan Dynasty. These troops later scattered in the province, with whole camps of them getting settled in Tonghai. In 1252, AD, Kubla Khan led an army of 100,000 into Sichuan via Gansu. From Sichuan he ferried across the Jinsha River into Yunnan, which put an end to the rule of the Dali Kingdom over Yunnan. In 1283, AD, the Yuan Dynasty set up the military command over Linan, Guangxi and Yuanjiang in Qutuoguang of Tonghai, with large troops stationed in what are now the Qutuoguang, Dazhai of Hexi and Dadaying of Jiujie. In the mid-Yuan and late Yuan periods, some of the Mongolians moved to live in the town of Hexi, others moved to the foot of the Phoenix Mountain. In 1987, a Mongolian township was established where the Mongolians live in compact community.
In between
          The Mongolians of Yunnan believe in animism and polytheism. Every family has a family alter where tablets of “heaven, earth, king, parents, teacher” as well as of ancestors are worshipped. There are over 10 temples in the major villages. Some of the major temples hold temple fairs regularly, of which the grandest is the Guanyin Fair held on the 19th day of the 2nd lunar month. The fair lasts for three days and nights, when ritual activities as well as theatrical shows are performed. The Mongolians are good at carpentry, and they worship Luban, a legendary carpenter of ancient times, as their founding master. On the 2nd day of the 4th month, they will celebrate a Luban Festival, when they will have a procession in villages with the statue of Luban. They also worship Gangis Khan, Mongol, and Kubla Khan as “three saints” in a way to remind themselves of their ancestry. In recent years, they have also revived their “Nadamuo”Festival,one of the grandest festivals for Mongolians.
Ethnic costumes
          The traditional costume of the Mongolians of Yunnan is not unlike that of the Mongolians in north China, featuring a long robe and a waist band. But now the apparel for men has become more and more sanitized. Women’s dress is characterized by a suit of three pieces in the upper part, all with embroideries of beautiful patterns. The first piece is a tight-fit vest with high collar and long sleeves, and a strip reaching the hip; the second piece is collarless, but the sleeves and length of the piece are the same as the first piece. The sleeves are often tucked up to the elbow when one wears it. The third piece is a short blouse with parallel buttons and silver buckles. The high collar, long sleeves and the patterns still retain some of the features of the Mongolian dress of the north. Young girls often wear a headdress or a bonnet with pigtails rounded up around the bonnet and a red thread tying up the pigtails. Married women do not wear a bonnet but a headdress. Once a woman has become a mother, she must have her hair done up and wrapped up with a headdress..