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民族概况
纳西族人口约28万,主要聚居在丽江市玉龙纳西族自治县。
村寨介绍
纳西族村占地49.5亩,入口处有纳西族保护神“三朵”塑像和以《创世纪》为题材的大型浮雕墙。重彩绘画和精细木作为特色的“三坊一照壁”、“民居院”、“花马坊”、“工艺楼”、“廊房”等重要建筑围合烘托出“四方街”。
民居建筑
纳西族的建筑有两房两照壁、三房一照壁、四合五天井等三种,主要以两房两照壁为主,是土木结构的瓦房。房屋建造多摹仿北京的四合院,正房六合门上的雕刻,每扇都有独特的图案,还有斗、拱、檐等,正厢房两则的屋檐上都有一对木悬鱼,它有两种说法:一是“吉庆有余”,二是鱼的繁殖能力很强,喻示着纳西族后代的繁衍兴旺。正房楼下中间是客厅和祭祀祖先的地方,两旁是长辈的卧室,年轻人住楼上。左边的厢房是客人住的。丽江古城完好地保留了古代城市的风貌,已被联合国世界教科文组织列为世界文化遗产。
宗教信仰
纳西族是个信仰多种宗教的民族,既信仰本民族的本土宗教——普遍信奉东巴教,也信仰喇嘛教、佛教、道教以及天,地,山,水等自然神,具有多神信仰的性质,各种宗教相容共存,和谐相处。东巴教历史悠久,是一种融汇了多种文化因素而独具特色的民族宗教形态。泛灵信仰、大自然崇拜、祖先崇拜、探索人与自然的和谐关系等是东巴教的主要特征。
礼仪习俗
纳西族热情好客,每当猎获归来,凡路遇的行人都可分得一份猎物。贵客临门,主人要做六样或八样菜进行款待
语言
纳西语属于汉藏语系藏缅语族彝语支。纳西族有两种文字,一种是表意的图画象形文字(民间称“斯究鲁究”),一种是表音的音节文字(民间称“哥巴文”)。著名的东巴象形文字被誉为象形文字的“活化石”,它是目前世界上仍在民间流传使用的象形文字。用东巴文写成的典籍“东巴经”,是一部古代纳西族的百科全书。
婚俗
男女青年相识后,通过媒人撮合,双方家长合完八字,男方就请媒人送给女方茶二筒,糖四盒或六盒、米二升,以表示山盟海誓,算是订婚。婚礼进行3-5天,届时男、女双方都要置办酒席。均由新郎跪请客人入座,奏乐上菜,上至第三道菜时,主婚人敬酒;第五道菜时,新郎、新娘向客人敬双杯酒。宴毕主人及亲属要站在门外关客。在部分纳西族地区仍存在着一种“抢婚”遗风,妻方要坚持旧传统住在母家,男子就用抢婚来实现把妻子留在夫家居住的愿望。现在的“抢婚”仅是一种形式,是男女双方的一种默契,为了以“生米已成熟饭”来搪塞对婚姻持有异义的女方父母。
服饰
纳西族男子的服装大体与汉族相同。丽江纳西族妇女身穿大褂,宽腰大袖,外加坎肩,系百褶围腰,穿长裤,披羊皮披肩,缀有刺绣精美的七星、旁缀日、月,表示勤劳之意。
文化
纳西族历史悠久,文化丰富,清新优雅的纳西“洞经音乐”融合了古代中原宫廷宴乐的旋律音韵,至今在纳西族聚居地区流传,是当今民族音乐中不可多得的精品。
饮食
当地的土特产做成各种风味名菜。如清蒸虫草鸭、贝母鸡、天麻鸡等。传统名菜“酿松茸”是用松茸菌帽,酿入肉泥,蒸熟后做为祭祀、特别是祭祖的一道专用菜肴。肉食以猪肉为主,尤以丽江和永宁的琵琶猪最为有名,典型食品主要有丽江火腿粑粑、麻补、雪莲花拼盘、丽春铜火锅、丽江火烤粑粑等。
歌舞
节日期间,男女老少围坐在篝火旁,能歌善舞的纳西姑娘跳起欢快的“阿哩哩”。
节日
传统节日有正月棒棒会、三月龙王庙会和七月骡马会。此外,还有春节、清明节、端午节、中秋节、火把节等。
Sanduo Statute
          Sanduo was a hero of the ancestors of the Naxi people. Legend has it that he saved the Naxi people in calamities. To show their gratitude and worship for him, the Naxi people make offerings to him on February 8 in the lunar calendar. The day is Sanduo Day. At the gate of Naxi Village stands a specially carved stone statute representing the valiant Sanduo on horseback.
Naxi-style House
          Naxi houses do not have a single style. To fit in with the natural environment, they are built according to terrain, climate, and materials. As a result, there are different types of houses: earth and wood houses with tile roofs, stone houses, log houses, large bungalows, etc. The Naxi house in the Cultural Garden, commonly seen in towns, is a courtyard brick and wood structure with a tile roof. The patterned floor in the courtyard is typical of buildings of this style.
Double-Door House
          Facing the street in the north, the north wing of the house has a double door installed right in the middle. One door opens towards the south into the courtyard, and the other opens towards the north onto the street. The parallel beams of the pillars in the middle are linked on the ground to add to the solidity of the structure. Common in Naxi towns, buildings of this style show the ingenuity of the Naxi people.
Sifang Street
          In 1997, the old town of Lijiang entered UNESCO World Heritage List. Dividing and connecting the old town, Sifang or Square Street is the commerce and trade center of the town. For that reason, it is described as the "big living room" of the old town. The street also shows off the singular architectural style of the old town. In 1992, a "Sifang Street" was built here in imitation of the features of the old town.
Game heaven
          The ancestors of the Naxi people believed in animism and manism. They specially set aside places for various ceremonies of worshipping the heavens, the earth, the ancestors and all natural things. Hence the name Heavens-Worshipping Ground. When the ceremonies were held, the worshipping ground was decorated with scripture flags and wooden tablets inscribed with names of gods. A dongba or priest would conduct the ceremonies and chant Dongba Scriptures, praying for blessing, warding off evil spirits and recommending the dead for their release from purgatory.
Huama Archway
          The highest building on Sifang Street in the old town of Lijiang, Kegong Archway was specially erected to display and commend those Lijiang natives who had passed the imperial examinations in old China. As Lijiang used to be the location of the ancient kingdom Huama Kingdom, the archway was also called Huama Archway. Located at the south end of Xinhua Street of the old town, the original archway is a pavilion-shaped structure with three tiers of eaves and a passageway. Its exquisite shape and distinctive local features have made it a landmark of the old town. The imitation archway in the village is built with the same materials, located on the same street and as large as its prototype in the old town.
The Dongba Pictographs
          The Dongba pictographic writing is a creation of the Naxi. The writing consists of about 1300 characters which have been used by the Dongba( priests) for over a thousand years. Thus the writing is also called Dongba script. The writing left by Dongbas of countless generations touch upon such subjects as astronomical observations and calendar, literature and art, religion and folk customs, language and philosophy. About 20,000 volumes of the Dongba writings have been collected by libraries and research institutions at home and abroad.
Dongba Religion
          The ancestors of the Naxi were worshippers of nature and ancestors, which has given rise to the Dongba religion, a belief system which is closely related to the Bon religion of the Tibetans in ancient times. The word “Dongba” in the Naxi language means “the wise”, and in the Dongba religion, it is also used to refer to the priest. Its other meanings cover the culture of the Naxi, including its script, classics, technology and cultural legacies.
Dongba Culture
          The Naxi traditionally believed in the Dongba religion, which in a broad sense also refers to the priesthood. The writings, classics, art, doctrines and ritual activities and norms that derived from the Dongba religion have become a complete cultural system known as the “Dongba culture”. What is on show here is but a small portion of the rich culture.
Painting and calligraphy
          The Naxi are a race that are highly adaptive and culturally tolerant. They have long made calligraphy and painting a part of their cultural tradition. Even in as early as the Ming Dynasty, the mural paintings of Baisha had become famous far and wide. They have also developed a kind of unique woodcarving and have produced many distinguished calligraphers and artists. When the Naxi village was just built in this theme park, the organizers received many calligraphic and painting works. What are on show here are only a part of them.
Old Town of Lijiang
          The Old Town of Lijiang was first built in the late Song and early Yuan Dynasties and is now over 800 years old. The town occupies an area of 1.5 square kilometers, with the Elephant Hill in the north and the Lion Hill in the south. The town has never had a wall. The transparent Yuquan Brook cuts through the town in three ways, washing the houses that stand along it. The main buildings of the town are all brick-and-wood structures and are fine examples of exquisite architectural skills. The buildings are well fitted into the landscape and stand in great harmony with nature. In the year 2004, the town was declared by UNESCO as a World Cultural Heritage Site.
Mural Painting of Baisha
          The Dabaoji Palace of Baisha of  Lijiang has a collection of mural paintings of the Ming Dynasty, including “Guanyin(Avalokitesvara) at Pumen”, “Founding Master Born out of Lotus”, and “Buddha Meeting His Disciples”. The paintings combine ideas of Tibetan Buddhism, Chinese Buddhism and Daoism. Both the religious and secular figures on the paintings are lifelike and full of vitality and charm.