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民族概况
水族人口近1.3万人,聚居在富源县的古敢水族乡和黄泥河镇。
村寨介绍
水族寨依水面而建,围农具成景,主要由云南富源县古敢水族乡代表性的板屋系“街面房”式的建筑,以及龙潭、大龙树等景观组合而成,表现了水族历史的祖风与特色。
民居建筑
水族村寨多依山傍水,四周多修竹古木,村边多水池鱼塘,房前屋后,喜植果木。房屋多用竹木建造,茅草、树皮或瓦片差顶,样式为干栏式建筑。每栋一般为三五间,二三层。底层豢养牲畜、鸡鸭,堆放农具杂物等。上层住人,檐下留有较宽的走廊,可晾晒衣物、粮食或休闲纳凉。因依山修建,有些屋基前低后高,水族人巧妙利用地势,修建成结构严谨、舒适美观的“吊脚楼”。从远处看去,层层叠叠,错落有致,具有浓厚的民族气息。
宗教信仰
过去信仰万物有灵,崇拜多神。认为古树、巨石、井泉都有神灵。生死、疾病、灾荒等都请巫师占卦念经,杀牲祭鬼,尤其以鱼祭祀为其特点。在一些边远山区,水族人有挂兽骨崇奉神灵的习俗。
礼仪习俗
民间笃信“万物有灵,灵魂永在”的原始宗教,每户人家门头均置有“吞口”面具,以驱邪消灾,求得平安吉祥。
语言
水语言属汉藏语系,壮侗语族,水语支。水族先民曾创制过自己的文字“水书”,已有2000年历史的古老文字,但多用于巫术活动。水族人日常生活中通用汉文。
婚俗
水族婚俗留有较浓的传统色彩,讲究明媒正娶。现在青年男女可自由恋爱,但形式上仍通过媒妁才缔结婚姻。通常先托媒人给对方父母转个口信,使其有思想准备,再托人送礼品去提亲。女方应允之后,才带酒肉去定亲。此后选适当的时候拾小猪去举行“吃小酒”仪式,接亲时要拾大肥猪去举行“吃大酒”仪式。结婚当夜伴娘陪新娘同宿,第二天新娘即回门,待到另一个吉日才把新娘请来,从此开始夫妻生活。婚嫁期间忌打雷,故婚期多安排在秋冬季节。
服饰
水族喜好白色、青色和兰色,服装一般以青色和兰色为主色,以白色作为装饰点缀。近些年来墨绿色也成了水族服饰的主色。水族男子穿大襟无领蓝布衫,戴瓜皮小帽,老年人着长衫,头缠里布包头,脚裹绑腿。妇女穿青黑蓝色圆领立襟宽袖短衣,下着长裤,结布围腰,穿绣青布鞋。水族妇女在喜庆节日或结婚庆典上,还另有盛装,这种盛装的上衣是古典式对襟、宽袖的黑色短衣,下身穿黑色长裤,外套黑色百褶裙,脚穿尖钩扎金穴花鞋。
饮食
水族以大米为主食,喜爱糯食,此外,水族还种植一些小麦、包谷、小米、红稗、红薯及饭豆等杂粮作辅助粮。水族喜爱喝酒,家家都会烤制米酒。逢年节、庆典或亲朋来访,都离不开以酒待客。
歌舞
民间舞蹈主要有斗角舞、铜鼓舞、芦笙舞等。乐器主要有铜鼓、大皮鼓、芦笙、胡琴、唢呐等,多在节庆与丧葬时使用。
节日
水族有许多传统节日,主要有端节、卯节、苏宁喜节、荐节、敬霞节等。主要节日为“端节”,过节时间在水历十一月至新年二月(相当于阴历八至十月)。是辞旧迎新、庆贺丰收、祭祀和预祝来年幸福的盛大节日,相当于汉族过春节。端节的主要活动为祭祀和赛马。
Shui Village
          The Shui ethnic group stemmed from the Luoyue tribe of the Baiyues that inhabited South China in ancient times. Their ancestors allegedly lived in the Basui Mountain, along what is now the Changjiang River in Nanning, the capital of Guangxi province. The Shui call themselves “sui”, which is corrupted into “shui” in Chinese. Historically the Shui were known by many other names, including “Baiyue”, “Liao”, “Miao” and “Man”. It was not until the mid-Qing Dynasty that they became known as “Shuijiamiao” or “Shuijia”. After the founding of New China, the State Council designated the group “Shui” after consulting the people themselves. Thus since 1956, “Shui” has become the official name of the race.
Good-Fortune Wheel
          “The Book of the Shui” is a very old scripture whose manuscript copies are found among the Shui and the Buyi even up to this day. An important part of the book is about the Bagua of Fuxi, a divinatory script that is said to work like magic in fortune-telling.
Duan Festival of Shui People
          The major festival of the Shui people is Duan Festival. The festival is celebrated from November to January in the Shui calendar (August to October in the Chinese lunar calendar). It is a time to harvest and sow autumn crops, a time to bid farewell to the Old Year and greet the New Year, and a time to present offerings to ancestors for blessings. What the Spring Festival is to the Han people is what the Shui Festival is to the Shui people. The main events during the festival are presenting offerings and horse racing. The New Year's Eve meal and the New Year's first meal must include a vegetarian feast for ancestors; bronze drums, jewelry, farming tools, and glutinous rice cakes are set out for ancestors' inspection and their blessing. On the New Year's first day, people gather on a slope called Duanpo to attend the horse race. Throughout the festival, there is a happy atmosphere in all Shui villages. People sing and dance to the beats of gongs and drums.
Mystical Tunkous
          The first thing one will notice in a Shui village is a mask set right in the middle of the door eaves of every house. The mask is the bust of a deity with a dagger in the mouth. Scholars term all such mystical and delicate busts "Tunkou" totems. Tunkous are made out of superior wood by skillful craftsmen with great piety. After he selects the wood, a tunkou craftsman has to model the wood into shape, carve it, polish it and finish it. When a tunkou is completed, a sorcerer, known as Shuishu, is invited to host ceremonies to make sacrifices to the mask and set it upon the door eaves. A tunkou is a symbol of having all deities in one, signifying warding off evils and bringing family prosperity.
Marriage Customs
          Young men and women are free to choose their loves, but etiquette still requires them to arrange their marriage through matchmakers. Usually, a matchmaker will first be asked to carry the message to the parents of both families, and the young man will then have gifts sent to the girl's family to propose. After getting the permission of the girl's parents, the young man will take wine and meat to the girl's family to make an engagement. Later on, he will choose a time to carry a piglet to the girl's family and hold a rite called "chixiaojiu" (an informal wedding feast). When the bridegroom goes to escort the bride to the wedding at his house, a fat pig will be carried along with him to the bride's family for the rite of "chidajiu" (formal wedding feast). The bride will sleep with her bridesmaid on the wedding night and return to her parents' home early in the morning. The bridegroom will choose another lucky day to take back the bride and begin their real marriage life. For the Shui people, thunder and rain are the greatest taboos at wedding, so weddings are mostly held in autumn and winter.