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民族概况
云南藏族约有13万人。主要聚居区迪庆州, 1957年9月,经国务院批准,成立云南省迪庆藏族自治州。
村寨介绍
藏族村占地21亩,村内有大小坡顶民居和雕楼式平顶民居。庄严神圣的藏传佛寺,壮观的迎宾白塔,象征吉祥和睦的“白牦牛”雕塑与独具风格的藏式建筑互为映衬,相得益彰。
民居建筑
藏族最具代表性的民居是碉房。碉房多为石木结构,外形端庄稳固,风格古朴粗犷。碉房一般分两层,以柱计算房间数。底层为牧畜圈和贮藏室;二层为居住层,三层多作经堂和晒台之用。因外观很像碉堡,故称为“碉房”。碉房具有坚实稳固、结构严密、楼角整齐的特点,既利于防风避寒,又便于御敌防盗。
宗教信仰
藏族普遍信仰藏传佛教。藏族丧葬受喇嘛教影响,相信人死后会转世,故死后要请喇嘛超度。有水葬、土葬、火葬和天葬等。著名的寺庙有甘丹寺、哲蚌寺、色拉寺、扎什伦布寺和布达拉宫。
礼仪习俗
藏家人豪放、幽默、热情,热爱生活。献哈达是藏族待客规格最高的一种礼仪,表示对客人热烈的欢迎和诚挚的敬意。哈达是藏语,即纱巾或绸巾。蓝、黄、白、绿、红五彩哈达用于最高最隆重的仪式如佛事等。
语言
藏族有自己的语言和文字。属汉藏语系藏缅语族藏语支。
婚俗
当天新娘拜过家神、祖先及父母,伴娘搀扶新娘上马,新娘在伴娘的陪伴下哭嫁,然后随亲者、媒人及婚使等一同起程。在新娘一行到达男家之前,男方派人在离家不远的地方设路席,敬酒致意。当到门前,男方将撒有青稞、羊毛的新白毡铺在新娘马前,为媒人、送亲者献哈达、敬酒。妇女们用奶汁为新娘洗脸,打醋炭,以洁身清垢,除灾避邪。入门后,喇嘛诵经祈祷,新娘新郎拜天地、家神及父母。礼毕,新娘入洞房,宾客入宴席。饭后举行谢媒。从次日起,男方家属轮换宴请宾客,馈送礼物,延续三两日方毕。
服饰
女子衣着对襟长袍,加坎肩,下围七彩邦典,以彩色毛线系辫盘于头顶;男子上衣下裤,外套圆领长楚巴,足着靴子。德钦的乌拉靴是其中的精品。男子多佩短刀,带护身银制佛盒,喜戴狐皮帽或毡帽。姑娘喜佩珊瑚项链、银饰和手箔。
文化
彝族创制过10个月为1年的太阳历,并有《历算书》、十二兽历法》、《太阳历》等彝文典籍记述。还创有彝文药典《齐苏书》。
饮食
以青稞等制作的糌粑和酥油、青稞酒是主要食品。糌粑是由青稞或碗豆炒熟后磨制而成的炒面,把糌粑用酥油茶或青稞酒拌和,用手捏成团即可吃。酥油茶是把砖茶的茶叶倒入1米长的木质长筒内,加上盐巴和酥油,用长轴上下冲击,使其各种成分均匀融合而成。青稞酒是用当地出产的青稞酿制而成的一种低度酒,食物多用肉食和奶制品。
歌舞
在节日期间,唱民间歌谣,跳锅庄舞、弦子舞,骑手们还进行跑马射箭比赛。
节日
黄藏历元旦是藏族人民最重要的节日,要穿着盛装相互拜年,并到寺院朝拜祈福。正月十五日,各大寺院举行法事,如祈愿大法会;农历四月八日 转山会(沐佛节、敬山神);五月端午赛马大会;七月“旺果”节;冬月二十九跳神会等等。
Buddhist temple
       Since its spread into the Tibetan area in the 7th century, Buddhism has evolved in ways that are unique to the region, to the extent that a “Tibetan Buddhism” was created, which in its turn is divided into many denominations or sects, including “ningma” (red sect), “geju” (white sect), “gelu” (yellow sect)and “sajia” (motley sect). The temple here combines some of the essentials features of all these sects and was initiated by two “living Buddhas” (senior monks) from the Songzanlin Monastery, who gave the temple the title of “Fusonglin Temple”. Each year there are two resident lamas in the temple presiding over all the rituals and ceremonies, which makes the temple all the more authentic as a typical Tibetan Buddhist structure, all allowing visitors to learn about and experience Tibetan Buddhism.
Yinbing Pagoda
         This pagoda in the Tibetan Village is a typical Tibetan structure of its kind designed and constructed in accordance with ritual propriety of Tibetan Buddhism. Inside the built-in altar sits a four-armed figure of the Goddess of Mercy (Guanyin or Avalokitesvara). Beneath the altar is a platform on which joss-sticks are burned for worshipping the goddess and seeking her blessings for an auspicious and happy life.
Geopolitical environment
          Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan and its surrounding areas are located at the southeastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the northern end of the southern section of Hengduan Mountains. High in the north and low in the south, the terrain is dominated by three mountains and four rivers. The three mountains are Nu Mountains, Yunling Mountains and Gongga Mountains. Running from north to south between those mountains are Dulong River, Nu River, Lancang River and Jinsha River. Over 100 mountain peaks are more than 4,000 meters above sea level. The highest peak in Yunnan, Peak Kagebo of Meili Snow Mountain towers 6,740 meters above sea level. Ruled by temperate and cold temperate monsoon climate, this vast mountainous Tibetan region is abundant in water and life.
Brief history
          Gedeng Neolithic Site in Yunnan Tibetan region proves that as early as 6,000 or 7,000 years ago the ancestors of various nationalities had lived in the region. The stone coffin graves and their relics, unearthed at Nagu and Yongzhi in Deqin County and Nixi in Zhongdian County, all evince that about 2,300 years ago Tubo people, the ancestors of the Tibetans, had created their rich Tubo culture here. During the Tang and Song dynasties, Tubo people appointed "Shenchuan Governor" for Yunnan Tibetan region and erected Tubo Iron Bridge. The bridge made it possible for horse caravans to travel through the region along the southern Silk Road--Chama Road. In Yuan Dynasty, Linxi County was established in Diqing. In Ming Dynasty, Diqing region was placed under the administration of Lijiang Command in 1381. In 1724, the central government of Qing Dynasty put Diqing under the administration of Yunnan Province and set up Zhongdian Department.
Houses and Customs
          A Tibetan-style flat-roof house is usually a three-story tower-like building with thick earthen walls. The first story is for animals, the second for people, the third for worshipping Buddha, and the roof for drying things. Installed at a corner of the house is an incense burner live all day long to pray for peace. The fire pit on the second story is the place for cooking and receiving visitors. In the valleys on the grassland, a common Tibetan-style house is a two-story earthen and wooden building with a sloping roof. The second story of the house is both for people to live on and for worshipping Buddha. The family members must take their seats according to their status in the family, and the guests, too, have to take the seats reserved for them. The Tibetan etiquette has rules for leaving and entering the house, sitting, and speaking as well as rules for treating elders and guests.   
Songs, Dances and Festivals
          The Tibetans in Yunnan love life. They are bold, unrestrained, humorous and warm-hearted. Almost everyone can sing and dance. Among their dances of distinctive styles are Xuanzi of Deqing County, Guozhuang of Shangri-la County and Reba of Tacheng in Weixi County. The Tibetans celebrate many festivals, such as the Grand Summons Ceremony on January 15 in the Tibetan calendar, the Horse Racing Festival in May in the Tibetan calendar, Wangguo Festival in July in the Tibetan calendar, and the Masked Dance in November in the Tibetan calendar. Wherever they are held, these festivals will make grand occasions and attract large followings of different nationalities.