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民族概况
彝族约420万人口,是省内人口最多、分布最广的少数民族,主要聚居在金沙江、元江流域和哀牢山、无量山腹地。
村寨介绍
彝族村占地50余亩,三虎浮雕墙与虎山造型表现了彝族虎文化特色。太阳历广场中央的图腾柱上有太阳、虎、火和八卦图形象,周围环绕着黑白面向不同的10个月球造型。广场外圆周分布有12生肖石雕。依山而建的“土掌房”建筑群,真实再现了彝家与自然和谐相处的生活观。建筑中有土司院、文化楼、知青房、酒坊及织绣间等。村中建有斗牛场和茶山园,还有秋千等民间体育设施
民居建筑
土掌房--彝族独特的民居建筑:彝族的“土掌房”的墙体以泥土为料,修建时用夹板固定,填土夯实逐层加高后形成土墙(即“干打垒”)。彝族住房多为三间或五间,正中一间为堂屋,是家庭成员聚会之所,亦为接待客人之所。靠墙壁左侧,设一火塘,火塘边立石三块成鼎状,锅支其上,称为“锅庄”,庄严禁人踩踏跨越,否则认为不吉。上方以蔑索吊一长方形木架,上铺竹条,作烘烤野兽干肉或蒜头、花椒、辣子之用。可用以煮饭、烧茶、取暖和照明。火塘成为彝族传递文化的场所。
宗教信仰
彝族宗教具有浓厚的原始宗教色彩,崇奉多神,主要是万物有灵的自然崇拜和祖先崇拜。自然崇拜中,最主要是对精灵和鬼魂的信仰。
礼仪习俗
彝族实行父系小家庭制,婚后分爨别居。通常幼嗣承家,女子无财产继承权。彝族少女成年时要举行一种神秘的“换裙”仪式,彝语“沙拉洛”,意为脱去童年的裙子,换上成年的裙子。换裙仪式多在单岁举行,双岁换裙视为不吉利。
语言
彝语属汉藏语系藏缅语族彝语支,有6个方言,25种土语。彝族有本民族文字,在明、清文献中称之为“爨文”、“爨字”或“韪书”,近代也称“倮文”、“夷书”、“毕摩文”等,是一种超方言的音节文字。
婚俗
彝家婚俗有姑舅表优先婚、抢婚等多种形式,姑舅表优先婚表现为,姑舅表兄弟姐妹,无论哪一方的子女,都鼓励他们彼此通婚,并享有缔婚的优先权。姑家的女儿要嫁给别人,必须征得舅家的同意。“抢婚”有真抢婚和假抢婚两种类型,“真抢婚”是青年男女从认识到相爱,因经济状况和社会地位的差异遭到女方家庭的反对,以致不得不采取非和平手段来达到结婚目的。事后男方会请自己的亲戚朋友帮忙,派人去女方家说情,女方碍于情面,只好答应这门亲事,重新举行结婚仪式,抢婚宣告成功效。“假抢婚”只是个形式。
服饰
男子通常穿黑色窄袖右斜襟上衣和多褶宽裤脚长裤,有的地区穿小裤脚长裤,并在头前部正中蓄小绺长发头帕,右方扎一钳形结。妇女较多地保留民族特点,通常头上缠包头,有围腰和腰带;一些地方的妇女有穿长裙的习惯。男女外出时身披擦尔瓦。首饰有耳坠、手镯、戒指、领排花等,多用金银及玉石做成。
文化
彝族创制过10个月为1年的太阳历,并有《历算书》、十二兽历法》、《太阳历》等彝文典籍记述,已引起天文史学界的高度重视。还创有彝文药典《齐苏书》。
饮食
彝族风味主食是荞粑,云南彝族传统佳肴白水煮乳猪,用乳猪水煮后蘸食。云南彝族风味名小吃锅巴油粉,用豌豆面制成。彝族喜食酸、辣,嗜酒,有以酒待客的礼节。酒为解决各类纠纷,结交朋友、婚丧嫁娶等各种场合中必不可少之物。
歌舞
彝族的民间舞蹈往往和歌唱、器乐的演奏分不开。著名的舞蹈有“阿细跳月”、“烟盒舞”、“左脚舞”等,都是集体舞蹈,通常用笛子、月琴、大三弦等乐器伴奏。“跳菜”——彝族的歌舞伴餐:“跳菜”即舞蹈着上菜,它是云南无量山、哀牢山彝族民间一种独特的上菜形式和宴宾时的最高礼仪,是舞蹈、音乐与杂技完美结合的历史悠久的传统饮食文化。
节日
彝族的节日主要有火把节、彝族年、拜本主会、密枝节、跳歌节等。“火把节”是彝族地区最普遍而最隆重的传统节日,一般在农历六月二十四日至二十六日晚上举行 。每到火把节,彝族男女老少,身穿节日盛装,打牲畜祭献灵牌,尽情跳舞唱歌、赛马、摔跤。夜晚,手持火把,转绕住宅和田间,然后相聚一地烧起篝火,翩翩起舞。
Soil main temple
          The primitive religion followed by the Yi people has tiger as its totem. Its chief god is also known as Tuzu (god of land). The god worshipped in the Tuzu Temple in Yi Village here is Xinuluo. Xinuluo, chieftain of Menghua tribe, unified the six tribes in Lake Erhai area and was also the first king of Nanzhao Kingdom. The tiger-head house reflects the image of the tiger--the totem of the Yi people.
Bimo
          For its many idols, the primitive religion of the Yi people has various worshipping activities. Those who preside over the activities are bimos, meaning priests, scripture instructors, or teachers. Having a good command of the ancient written language of Yi, they possess and are well acquainted with Bimo Scriptures in Yi language. Bimos are believed to be the communicators between men and gods.
Bimo Master

          Bimo is a Yi word. “bi” means “sutra chanting” or “prayer-saying”, and “mo” means “a learned elderly person”. So the word as a whole refers a priest who performs all the ritual activities for the community, including saying prayers for people and presiding over sacrificial rites. A Bimo is also responsible for teaching youngsters the Yi writing, writing or copying Yi classics. A Bimo is supposed to function as a medium between the world of spirits and the world of men, a master of souls as well as a promulgator of culture. He plays an important role in presiding over ceremonies in child-delivery, marriage, and funeral practices, and in disease treatment, festival celebrations, hunting and farming activities.

          Tradition has it that the Yi writing was invented by the Bimo Master. The statue here is a representation of the Master himself. The statue also embodies the Yi 
tradition for respecting culture and worshipping eagle   and tiger.

The Yi Embroidery
          The Yi embroidery techniques are best represented by the Sani (a branch of the Yi) at  Shilin (Stone Forest) County. Sani women are good at using colorful threads and cloth of their own making to express what they feel and think about life .And embroidery has become to them not just a skill but a way of life. The Sani embroidery has entered the second list of non-material cultural heritages issued by the State Council.

          The techniques the Sani women demonstrate in their embroidery include crisscross needlework, flat embroidery and flower-carving. The needlework ranges from picking, and pinning to buckling, with patterns dominated by geometric or symmetric designs. The carving technique features simple and abstract patterns.