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民族概况
普米族自称“培米”,意为白人,人口3.3万,主要居住在滇西北的兰坪、宁蒗、丽江及维西、永胜等县。
村寨介绍
木结构,木板盖顶,四面墙用木料重叠垛成的木屋里展示了他们日常的生活起居。旁边有一酥里玛酒酒作坊,香气四溢。
民居建筑
坝区住房多仿白族“三坊一照壁”等院落形式,山区多为木楞房四合院布局。多数房屋为木结构,木板盖顶,四面墙用木料重叠垛成。在大床的中央再砌一火塘,其上架起三角架,供取暖和烧水做饭之用,称为“下火塘”。火塘是房屋的中心,是全家人活动的主要场所。周围设铺位,左为男铺,右为女铺,供全家人起居之用。一般为两层,上面住人,下关家畜。普米族的房门外都悬挂着牛羊的骨头,据说这是家庭财富的象征,同时也具有驱邪镇鬼的作用。
宗教信仰
信仰藏传佛教、道教等,存在着浓厚的自然崇拜和多神信仰。每天三次向火塘上方“宗巴拉”神祭拜敬酒。还崇拜祖先。每逢节庆、婚嫁、生育、出行、收割等,都要请巫师(汗归)杀牲祭献,诵经祈祷,以便消灾祛难,保佑安康。
礼仪习俗
普米族每年过年都要为年满十三岁的儿童举行“穿裤子(裙子)”的成年礼仪式,亦即“成丁礼”。即给男孩穿上长裤,给女孩换上百裙长裙。举行过“成丁礼”的少男少女,标志着已长大成人,开始成为家庭的成员,可以参加成年人的各种活动,可以恋爱、结婚。
语言
普米族有自己的语言,属汉藏语系藏缅语族羌语支(有说属藏语支),有两个方言区。无文字,通行汉文。
婚俗
宁蒗地区保留着古老的“抢婚”习俗。“抢婚”是相爱的青年男女因婚姻受阻而采取的一种“生米做成熟饭”的结婚方式。男女双方事先暗中商定婚期,结婚那天,姑娘仍若无其事的外出劳动。男方则派生辰属相相合的人暗中跟踪,看准时机后突然抢夺。抢得之后便高喊:“某某人家请你去吃茶!”姑娘佯装反抗,早有准备的亲友们闻讯后也迅速出击,与迎亲的人展开激烈争夺,由于人多势众,终将姑娘夺回,然后簇拥她回家,举行隆重的出嫁仪式。尽管女方家长不同意这门亲事,但此时也无可奈何,只好默认,并准备丰盛的食物,为女儿出嫁进行庆祝。兰坪、维西等地普米族的婚礼则是在对歌声中进行的,整个婚礼喜庆、欢乐、吉祥。在部分普米族的婚姻习俗中,还留存着“不落夫家”的习俗。
服饰
传统服装一般穿黑白直条相交的麻布或棉布衣,下穿短裤,习惯用麻布一块从左肩腋下斜拉至胸前,袒露左肩右臂,左肩一角用草绳或竹针拴结,腰间佩带弩弓、箭包和砍刀。女子多在腰间系戴染色的油藤圈作装饰,常常披挂的五颜六色,串珠、胸链、耳环,甚至铜钱和银币常挂在颈上和耳下。妇女出门要身背精致的篾箩。男女不戴帽,多披头散发,赤足。
文化
文学艺术丰富多彩,内容广泛,诗歌、传说、故事、寓言、雕刻、绘画有鲜明的民族特点。其叙事诗《白狼诗歌》三章历代传颂,享有盛名。还有记载传统习惯法规的《古利歌》,宗教方面的《请神歌》等世代传唱。漆器是普米族的传统工艺品,远近闻名,通常的制品有漆碗、酒壶、酒杯、漆盒等。他们喜爱以黑色为底,配以红白图案,小巧玲珑,光洁可爱。
饮食
主食玉米、荞麦,喜欢饮酥里玛酒酒、吃烤肉、喝茶、抽旱烟。民间仍保留许多古朴的烹调方法,最常见的是用一种特制石板锅烙熟的石板粑粑。烙制石板粑粑时,多选用阿吞或董棕树淀粉,用鸟蛋和成糊状,然后倒在烧热的石板锅上,随烙随食,别具风味。蜂蛹是独龙族民间最讲究的菜肴之一。典型食品有河麻煮芋头、烧酒焖鸡、吉咪等。
歌舞
四弦琴是普米人非常喜爱的传统乐器,常常都能听到纯朴、悠扬的四弦琴声。它既是普通的乐器,还是小伙子们向姑娘传情示爱的武器。最流行的交谊方式是“对歌”,无论婚、丧、节庆,都要“对歌”。
节日
普米族的主要节日有大过年、大十五节、转山会、尝新节等。大过年即过春节。雪门槛游山节是普米族节日中人数最多而宗教气氛较淡的一个节日。转山节是农历七月十五进行的祭山神活动。
Dwelling Houses
          The Pumi are mostly found living in clans in hillsides or valleys. Their housing structure in valley area is similar to that of the Bai, with three rooms forming a courtyard compound and a screen wall at the entrance. In hills, Pumi houses are mostly built of clapboard and in the form of a four-house courtyard, with the entrance gate facing east. The roofs are also of wooden board, and the walls are made of stacked-up wood blocks. The houses are usually of two stories, with the upstairs part being dwellings for people and the downstairs part as animals’ pens. In counties like Yongshen and Huaping, there are also Pumi houses that are of brick-and-wood structure and with tile roofs. In the front there is a big house which functions as the living room for the family and as bedroom for the housekeeping lady or elderly women. The two annex houses on both sides of the main house are where younger women live, and where they entertain their “Azhu”(boy friend). They take care of whatever children born out of such relationship.
Sulima Wine
          The Pumi live in areas that are marked by undulating hills, with the Yunlin Mountain running from the south to the north. The region is bestowed with a mild climate and endless tracts of grasslands that are ideal for development of animal husbandry. The livestock raised by the Pumi include pigs, cattle and sheep, though poultry farming and apiculture are also popular. The main handcraft and sideline industries of the Pumi include textile, leather processing, ironware making, brewery, oil processing, bamboo utensils making, charcoal making, hunting, herbal medicine, and lacquer ware making. Their staple crops are maize, barley, wheat and oats. The Sulima wine they make out of barley is brewed with processes that are highly complicated and unique. And only women know the secret of making it. The wine tastes mellow and sweet, and is often known as a kind of indigenous beer.
Sword-Pole Square
          The 20th day December witnesses the Lisu celebrating their traditional Kuoshi Festival, when such stunning folk performances as “climbing sword-poles” and “walking on hot burning charcoal” are staged. Hence the name this square.

          The Sword-Pole Square is where the Lisu, the Pumi, the Nu and the Dulong exhibit their cultural traditions. Apart from “climbing sword-poles” of the Lisu, there are also shows of the Quekawa Festival of the Dulong, the Fairies Festival of the Nu, the Folk Songs of the Lisu and other traditions that have been listed by the State Council as Non-Material Cultural Heritage.
Inaugural Ceremony
          The Pumi communities in Lanping and Ninglan will hold inaugural ceremonies for their children around the Spring Festival when they come of age. In Pumi’s terms, this means when they are 13 years old. Regardless of sex, Pumi children before 13 all wear a pullover of hemp cloth, tied up with a waist band in the middle. And they all wear earrings and bracelets made of silver. Earrings used to be very large, but now they tend to be replaced by a jade article hung on a colorful string. When the children attend the inaugural ceremonies at the age of 13, such outfits will be changed. Boys will be given trousers to wear, and girls skirts. The ceremony marks the maturity of the children, who are entitled thereby to participate in activities of adults.
Pumi’s Costume
          Pumi women in Lanping and Weixi counties love to wear a short cloak with big fronts in blue, white or bluish colors and long trousers. They also like to wear a shawl, silver earrings and bracelets and embroidered waist bands. In Yongsheng and Ninglan, Pumi women wear a headdress that is done up with silky strings. Their outfits feature a big front and long skirts that reach the ground, with very colorful waistbands. They seem to prefer such colors as red, green, blue and yellow. Men’s apparel is similar in all Pumi localities, with a typical short cloak which opens on the right, with silvery buttons. Their trousers are rather loose, with black and blue being the preferred colors. They are often seen wearing a long pullover with waist bands, and white capes, which look very simple in making but very practical in use. The elderly are dressed almost in the same way with the exception that they do not wear ornaments and their preferred color is black.
Pumi’s Belief System
          The Pumi believe in Tibetan Buddhism, Taoism as well as animism and polytheism. Thrice every day they will offer wine to the god “Zongbala” that dwells above the hearth. The Pumi priests are classified into three orders, namely, “shibi”, “xishibi” and “hangui”. The Pumi also worship ancestors in the hope of seeking ancestral blessings for a prosperous life with many children. Apart from the common ancestor Badingcimu whom all Pumi worship, the ancestors of each clan and family are also greatly worshipped. And offerings are made to them on festive occasions. The Pumi also have a special respect for dogs. The Pumi have unique burial practices which also differ from place to place. In Lanping, earth burial is common, while in Ninglan, cremation is preferred. The ashes are often stored in caves that are used by the clan since ancient times.
Cultural Features
          The Pumi have their own language, but no script. So they use Chinese as their writing system, though they do have a pictographic writing which only their magicians or hanguis know to use. The hanguis also use Tibetan as their writing, since most Pumi are believers in Tibetan Buddhism. The Pumi have a varicolored literature and art. Their poetry, legends, fables, sculpture and paintings all show very outstanding ethnic characteristics. The long narrative poems Song of White Wolf and Song of Good Luck and Song of Gods have been in popular circulation for many generations. The Pumi take singing as an important way to communication. At weddings, funerals and on festive occasions, the Pumi will sing songs to each other in a way to express their feelings and thoughts. These songs cover a wide range of things, including religion, work, marriage and death. Most of the songs are narrative.
Sword-Pole Square Cock-Fighting
          In times of old, cock-fighting was popular as a folk way of entertainment, especially in southern Yunnan. Cock-fighters often keep several well-trained cocks, and on festive occasions or market days, they would put on cock-fighting shows in public. The winning cock often brought great honor and prize to its owner and the owner’s village. And there would always be a frolicking for celebrating the victory. On this square, cock-fighting shows are sometimes staged for visitors. When this happens, please make sure that you are at a safe distance from the scene of fighting.